Jebel Barkal, is a significant archaeological site in northern Sudan. It is situated next to the Nile River and includes temples, pyramids, and other structures that have been around since the first century.
Jebel Barkal is located about 130 miles north of Khartoum, Sudan. It rises more than 500 feet above the surrounding plains, and its peak is visible from miles away.
The site has a rich history due to its association with the Napatan kingdom and the Kushite empire that followed it.The people who built this site were part of a widespread Nubian culture known as Kush. They were a group of people of African origin who migrated northward through Egypt into Nubia and established an empire called Meroë (or Meroe). Meroë was based on an older Egyptian civilization, but during its existence from about 300 BC to 350 AD, it was a powerful force in its own right. The Meroitic people inhabited an area in modern-day Sudan and southern Egypt from around 400 BCE to 350 CE.
The Meroites were known for their pyramids, but Jebel Barkal is different from the Sudan pyramids in that it’s not just a burial site; it’s also a temple. This means it was built for religious purposes rather than just to honor royalty with giant tombs.
The Kushites adopted many Egyptian customs including writing and building construction methods. They also practiced animal husbandry like their predecessors, but built on that by becoming more productive in terms of crops than their predecessors had been.
Jebel Barkal has played an important role throughout its long history, beginning with its association with Napata. A temple there belonged to the god Amun-Re (also identified as Ra), and it was one of the most sacred places in the Napatan kingdom. There is some controversy about who exactly built the temple at Jebel Barkal. Some say it was built by Queen Amanirenas, who reigned between 40 BCE and 10 CE. Others say it was built either by Emperor Arakamani or by King Arqamani before him, both of whom reigned during the 4th century CE.